The Oyo Kingdom, as with other states of the Yoruba people in the southern coastal area of West Africa (modern Nigeria), claimed descent from an exiled king of Ife (11-15th century CE). Although archaeology has yet to discover concrete connections between the various successive states of what is today Nigeria, oral traditions, such as those in the Kingdom of Benin (13-19th century CE), located just to the east of Oyo, tell of a king of Ife who not only sent a prince to rule other areas of the region but also sent a master craftsman to spread his sculptural skills. In oral traditions, the founder of the Oyo state was one Oranmiyan (aka Oranyan), son of Oduduwa, the founder of Ife. An impressive carved granite column from Ife stands 5.5 metres (18 ft.) tall and is known as the Opa Oranmiyan or ‘staff of Oranmiyan’. Oyo art in general displays a striking resemblance to that of Ife and Benin. Through this process of cultural transfer, the Oyo inherited a long cultural tradition that stretched right back the Nok Culture of ancient Nigeria (5th century BCE to 2nd century CE).
Early in the 16th century, Oyo was a minor state, powerless before its northern neighbours Borgu and Nupe—by whom it was conquered in 1550. The power of Oyo was already growing by the end of the century, however, thanks to the Alaafin Orompoto, who used the wealth derived from trade to establish a cavalry force and to maintain a trained army. Oyo subjugated the kingdom of Dahomey in the west in two phases (1724–30, 1738–48) and traded with European merchants on the coast through the port of Ajase (now Porto-Novo). As Oyo’s wealth increased, so did its leaders’ political options; some wished to concentrate on amassing wealth, while others advocated the use of wealth for territorial expansion. This difference was not resolved until the Alaafin Abiodun (reigned c. 1770–89) conquered his opponents in a bitter civil war and pursued a policy of economic development based primarily on the coastal trade with European merchants.
It was formed in 1976 from Western State and included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high-density urban centers. The indigenes mainly comprise the Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadans and the Ibarapas, all belonging to the Yoruba family and indigenous city in Africa. Ibadan had been the centre of administration of the old Western Region since the days of British colonial rule.
It was formed in 1976 from Western State, and included Ọsun State, which was split off in 1991. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high-density urban centers. The indigenes mainly comprise the Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadans and the Ibarapas, all belonging to the Yoruba family and indigenous city in Africa. Ibadan had been the centre of administration of the old Western Region since the days of British colonial rule.
Located in the South-West geopolitical zone of Nigeria, Oyo State was one of the three States carved out of the former Western State of Nigeria in 1976. Oyo State consists of 33 Local Governments and 29 Local Council Development Areas. Local Government Areas are: Afijio, Akinyele, Atiba, Atisbo, Egbeda, Ibadan North, Ibadan North-East, Ibadan North-West, Ibadan South-East, Ibadan South West, Ibarapa Central, Ibarapa East, Ibarapa North, Ido, Irepo, Iseyin, Itesiwaju, Iwajowa, Kajola, Lagelu, Ogbomoso North, Ogbomoso South, Ogo-Oluwa, Olorunsogo,Oluyole, Ona-Ara, Oorelope, Oriire, Oyo East, Oyo West, Saki East, Saki West and Surulere. The Local Council Development Areas (LCDAs) are: Aare Latosa, Afijio West, Ajorosun, Akinyele East, Akinyele South, Akinyele West, Akorede, Araromi, Atisbo South, Ibadan East, Ibadan South East, Ibadan West, Ibarapa North-East, Ibarapa North-West, Ifeloju, Iganna, Inukan, Irepodun, Iseyin South, Iwa, Lagelu North, Ogbomoso Central, Ogbomoso South-West, Ogo-oluwa West, Oke’badan, Omi Apata, Surulere North, Surulere South, Wewe.